MYONET - Atlas Musculature Orofacial System

Atlas Musculature: Faulty Actions,II,B,1,2,3

Erhard Thiele     021e Atlas Musculature Inventory       MYONET.TOTAL PROGR CONTENTS  


 Analysis of the muscular faulty actions in the discussion of the physiology of the muscles of area II

        Tongue Musculature –

Consequently long-standing form conversions can be assumed when pathological disorders are existing. The cause can be a disorientation of function through an altered anatomy or regulation as well as a dysfunction which the range of the normal task of muscles and hard tissues - this is also true for functional demands which are requested from the organism while a fault in a neuromuscular system is forcing it to run an emergency program for keeping up the vital functions or in case of a parafunction which is based on (bad) habits not being necessary as a vital function or even obstructive. In these cases a continuous, often hours lasting muscle pressure imbalance exists steadily for hours between inside and outside. Deep or backward position of the tongue, biting on it and pressing also pressing between interdental spaces would be the actions leading to an imbalance from inside. These would be countered by those from outside like cheeks or lips biting or pressing, gnawing at or biting on items .The misfits are completed in the complex system of balance for the inside and outside air pressure which, equally, is controlled by muscle actions.

A faulty loading over a longer period leads to malformations of hard and soft tissues which, subsequently, through an altered, pathological anatomy to a long-term faulty stressing leading into a faulty circuit. This is the case with the "too big tongue". About this writes Rauber-Kopsch:”In a unilateral Hypoglossus paralysis the stretched out tongue points to the side of the paralysis towards which it is deflected by the contracted M. genioglossus of the healthy side. After a longer existing Hypoglossus paralysis results a rather wide-ranging half side tongue atrophy (126,s.273)

Acting Muscle

Extrinsic Muscles

Negative Effect on the Tongue Body



I I/A. 1. M. styloglossus



High tongue backwards position with tendency to broad form, interocclusal positioning, lateral- and palatal pressing, uni-, bilateral


          2. M. genioglossus


Protrusive pressing of the mid part of the tongue, low position of the tip, frontal pressing


          3. M. hyoglossus

low positioning of the tongue body, deep lateral tongue pressing

          Intrinsic Muscles


II/B.   1. M. longitudinalis


short, bulky, broad lump


          2. M. transversus


frontal pressing and interdental positioning


         3. M. verticalis

lateral pressing and interdental positioning



The musculature is atrophic with hypofunction (as we know, the muscle fibres undergo a steady transformation into connective tissue, the myogelosis, also when constantly overstimulated). We also view a picture which fits to the above described with a too short lingual frenum. The tongue cannot reach its rest respectively functioning position at the incisal papilla, the respective musculature is "switched off", the tongue body "melts away“. It, then, is viewed with an unusually slim tip.

Over-trained musculature appears bulky (bodybuilders). Too big tongues often only are over-trained. Signs are surface alterations reaching from an unusual surface coining (structure) as with the postal-stamp-tongue" and similar manifestations till distinctive lacerations (Lingua areata). Due to the above discussed multiple movability and mouldability of the tongue body the changes may be just point-size or regional up to extensive. Quite analogical to that are the moulding signs caused by the overstraining pressure against the bordering hard textures. The tongue can press as a block enlarging the jaw bone arches by centimetres and it can torque a single tooth through a diverticulation (this capacity of the tongue can picturesquely be compared to the pseudopodium formation of an amoeba added all other imaginable stages between these two extremes. A remark in front: Many tongue dysfunctions are not imaginable without the steady abutment of the musculature of the Diaphragma oris, the mouth floor.(see next chapter, Area III). Similar to the orofacial musculature it is advisable with the here discussed muscles as well to consider what sort of error tendencies a certain muscle group may add to the dysfunctions as an existing defect like a dysfunction may arise out of a combination of different synergisms or antagonisms. We have listed up some basic tendencies of single muscles and synergisms to form muscular faulty actions in general or partial muscle activity. A free combination is possible mainly through three extrinsic and three intrinsic muscle groups and additionally in a unilateral and bilateral way, and each resulting muscular dysfunction  - which ends the systems capacity to be calculable especially when, as already mentioned, additionally mouth floor muscles in an ample sense and further the air pressure are interacting.