MYONET - Atlas Musculature Orofacial System

Atlas Musculature: Area II,A,1,2,3

Erhard Thiele     018e Atlas Musculature Inventory       MYONET.TOTAL PROGR CONTENTS  


1.2 Area II: The Tongue Musculature  

(Recommendations for more detailed literature: )

I.2.1 Map of the Musculature of the  Tongue


B. Intrinsic Musculature (section view)

Abb.21: Tongue Musculature dorsal view

A. Extrinsic Musculature (complete track)

   1. Mm. longitudinales linguae     1. M. styloglossus
              ( a.superiores)    ( 1a. M. palatoglossus )
              ( b.inferiores )     2. M. genioglossus    
    2. Mm. transversales linguae     3. M. hyoglossus
    3. Mm. verticales linguae      (3a.M. chondroglossus )


Location and short description of the single Muscles of Area II A. Extrinsic musculature, B. Intrinsic musculature of the tongue ('Action' see footnote.)


A. Extrinsic musculature

II/A, 1. Musculus styloglossus (Styloid-tongue muscle)

Abb. 22: Extrinsic Tongue Musculature

Muscular fascicle at the side of the pharynx.


Origo: Spina mentalis, inner side of the chin.

Insertio: Aponeurosis along the midsagittal plane 

Path: Frontal fibres vertically (tongue tip), backwards more and more horizontally.

Action: vertical fibres distract the back of the tongue from the palate, those at the back lift the tongue ground forward; synergism with vertical fibres (B3) and transversals (B2); protruding of the tongue unilaterally - turns tongue back to the very side.

Hyperfunction = Tongue pressing.

Muscleexercises:having followed this link  get back to this page  with 'arrow back' on your browser


II/A, 1a. Musculus palatoglossus (Splits up into the soft palate and is sometimes not seen as an individual muscle.)

Site/location: Palatine arch
Origo: Palatine aponeurosis with contact to the opposite site.
Insertio: Back of the tongue and M. transversus linguae
Path: Frontal palatal arch (therefore sometimes counted to the palatal musculature.)
Action: Through its form, position and leading in it shows the picture of a perfect muscle ring in reference to the peristaltic wave in the deglutition process at the end of the oral cavity (upmost fauces constrictor).
Specialities:: Hypofunction: Snoring, choking

Muscleexercises:having followed this link  get back to this page  with 'arrow back' on your browser


II/A, 2. Musculus genioglossus (Chin-tongue muscle)

Within the mandibular arch fan-like beneath the septum linguae (Abb. 24)


Origo: Spina mentalis, inner side of the chin

Insertio: Aponeurosis long median-plain

Path: Front fibres vertical (tongue tip), back fibres progressively horizontal.

Action: vertical fibres distract the tongue back from the palate,

back fibres lift the tongue root forward; Synergism with vertical fibres (B3) and transversal fibres

(B2): Stick out the tongue unilaterally, turns tongue-back to this side.

Specialities: Hyperfunction: tongue-pressing.

Muscleexercises:having followed this link  get back to this page  with 'arrow back' on your browser



II/A, 3. Musculus hyoglossus (Hyoid-tongue muscle)

Two uniform fibre-track blocks,

          superior = below the Aponeurosis,
          inferior   = lateral, inferior surface.


in the full length of the tongue.

 (Antagonist to Styloglossus) shortening the tongue, deep position, pull down-backwards.
          superior: tongue back convex

           inferior: tongue back concave

Muscleexercises:having followed this link  get back to this page  with 'arrow back' on your browser : (Peristalsis wave within the swallow  reflex), YAWNING MAN, TONGUE-PLOP; FROZEN PLOP.


II/A, 3a. Musculus chondroglossus (embranchment of Hyoglossus, partially also seen as not separate.)
Site:/location: See II/A.3
Origo: Cornu minor Os Hyoid
Insertio:  Tongue submucosa
Path: Cranialwards
Action: Tongue body downwards

(Footnote on the type of action of the tongue musculature: The syn- and antagonisms of the intrinsic as well as extrinsic Musculi linguales for the movability can not be described in short terms, so the trial undergone here is bound to turn out fragmentary and does not explain every tongue movement.)